The intended use for a microphone should be the single most important factor that will determine the type of microphone to buy. The purpose of microphones may vary from recording, voice-overs, karaoke to public address. Once you have identified the intended purpose of the shotgun microphone that you wish to buy, you may then proceed to check out the different types of microphones that are on offer.
There are some types of microphones that are discussed below.
Condenser Microphone: The condenser microphone works by creating a variation in the amount of electric charge stored internally within a microphone's electrical system. These microphones have exceptional frequency response, hence are suitable for studio recording. A phantom power source is necessary for the operation of this microphone.
Dynamic Microphone: Electromagnetism is the principle behind the design of dynamic microphones. It uses a similar concept to that of the loudspeaker to produce sound. Therefore, these microphones are suitable for applications such public address systems, where high frequencies are limited, and instead the emphasis is on the mid-range frequencies. Therefore, these microphones do not require pre-amplifiers for normal operation.
Ribbon Microphone: These high frequency microphones are in a way related to dynamic microphones, since they both operate on the electromagnetic principle. The only difference is that the ribbon microphone uses electromagnetic induction to generate voltages between the magnetic poles, through a ribbon made from thin metal placed in between the poles.
The high frequency capability makes this microphone suitable for voice-overs and studio recording. Even though a power source is not necessary for these microphones to operate, they have a pre-amplifier, which has to have a power source.